Archive for the ‘Oracle database internals’ Category
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on April 29, 2012
We know that database blocks are transferred between the nodes through the interconnect, aka cache fusion traffic. Common misconception is that packet transfer size is always database block size for block transfer (Of course, messages are smaller in size). That’s not entirely true. There is an optimization in the cache fusion code to reduce the packet size (and so reduces the bits transferred over the private network). Don’t confuse this note with Jumbo frames and MTU size, this note is independent of MTU setting.
In a nutshell, if free space in a block exceeds a threshold (_gc_fusion_compression) then instead of sending the whole block, LMS sends a smaller packet, reducing private network traffic bits. Let me give an example to illustrate my point. Let’s say that the database block size is 8192 and a block to be transferred is a recently NEWed block, say, with 4000 bytes of free space. Transfer of this block over the interconnect from one node to another node in the cluster will result in a packet size of ~4200 bytes. Transfer of bytes representing free space can be avoided completely, just a symbolic notation of free space begin offset and free space end offset is good enough to reconstruct the block in the receiving side without any loss of data.This optimization makes sense as there is no need to clog the network unnecessarily.
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Posted in 11g, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC | Tagged: RAC internals, RAC performance, RAC performance myths, _gc_fusion_compression | 9 Comments »
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on April 19, 2012
If you are attending Collaborate 2012, you might be interested in my content-rich sessions below :
Session Number: 326
Session Title: SCAN, VIP, HAIP, and other RAC acronyms
Session Date/Time/Room: Tue, Apr 24, 2012 (10:45 AM – 11:45 AM) : Surf C
Session Number: 327
Session Title: Internals and Performance Boot Camp: Truss, pstack, pmap, and more
Session Date/Time/Room: Wed, Apr 25, 2012 (03:00 PM – 04:00 PM) : Palm A
Hope to see you there!
Update: I am uploading presentation files. Presentations are much more recent than the document
Thanks for attending!
Posted in Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, Presentations, RAC | Tagged: collaborate 2012 presentations, haip, pfiles, pmap, pstack, RAC, RAC performance, RAC presentations, scan, semtimedop, strace, truss, vip | 1 Comment »
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on April 19, 2012
Last week (March 2012), I was conducting Advanced RAC Training online. During the class, I was recreating a ‘gc buffer busy’ waits to explain the concepts and methods to troubleshoot the issue.
Let’s define these events first. Event ‘gc buffer busy’ event means that a session is trying to access a buffer,but there is an open request for Global cache lock for that block already, and so, the session must wait for the GC lock request to complete before proceeding. This wait is instrumented as ‘gc buffer busy’ event.
From 11g onwards, this wait event is split in to ‘gc buffer busy acquire’ and ‘gc buffer busy release’. An attendee asked me to show the differentiation between these two wait events. Fortunately, we had a problem with LGWR writes and we were able to inspect the waits with much clarity during the class.
Remember that Global cache enqueues are considered to be owned by an instance. From 11g onwards, gc buffer busy event differentiated between two cases:
- If existing GC open request originated from the local instance, then current session will wait for ‘gc buffer busy acquire’. Essentially, current process is waiting for another process in the local instance to acquire GC lock, on behalf of the local instance. Once GC lock is acquired, current process can access that buffer without additional GC processing (if the lock is acquired in a compatible mode).
- If existing GC open request originated from a remote instance, then current session will wait for ‘gc buffer busy release’ event. In this case session is waiting for another remote session (hence another instance) to release the GC lock, so that local instance can acquire buffer.
Following output should show the differentiation with much clarity.
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Posted in 11g, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC | Tagged: gc buffer busy, gc buffer busy acquire, gc buffer busy release, oracle performance, RAC performance | 17 Comments »
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on February 13, 2012
Temporary tablespaces are shared objects and they are associated to an user or whole database (using default temporary tablespace). So, in RAC, temporary tablespaces are shared between the instances. Many temporary tablespaces can be created in a database, but all of those temporary tablespaces are shared between the instances. Hence, temporary tablespaces must be allocated in shared storage or ASM. We will explore the space allocation in temporary tablespace in RAC, in this blog entry.
In contrast, UNDO tablespaces are owned by an instance and all transactions from that instance is exclusively allocated in that UNDO tablespace. Remember that other instances can read blocks from remote undo tablespace, and so, undo tablespaces also must be allocated from shared storage or ASM.
Space allocation in TEMP tablespace
TEMP tablespaces are divided in to extents (In 11.2, extent size is 1M, not sure whether the size of an extent is controllable or not). These extent maps are cached in local SGA, essentially, soft reserving those extents for the use of sessions connecting to that instance. But, note that, extents in a temporary tablespace are not cached at instance startup, instead instance caches the extents as the need arises. We will explore this with a small example:
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Posted in 11g, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC | Tagged: CI enqueue, DFS lock handle, oracle performance, RAC performance, SS enqueue, temporary tablesapce, temporary tablespace, temporary tablespace groups | 16 Comments »
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on January 25, 2012
It is probably easy to calculate hourly redo rate or daily redo rate using AWR data. For example, my script awr_redo_size.sql can be used to calculate daily redo rate, and awr_redo_size_history.sql can be used to calculate hourly redo rate. Hourly redo rate is especially useful since you can export to an excel spreadsheet, graph it to see redo rate trend.
Update: I added another script to calculate redo rate if you don’t have AWR license. redo_size_archived_log.sql.
Introduction to Direct Mode Writes
Direct mode operations write directly in to the database file skipping buffer cache. Minimal redo(aka invalidation redo) is generated, if the database is not in force logging mode. Keeping the database in no force logging mode is peachy as long as you don’t use Data guard, Streams, or Golden Gate.
Suddenly, business decide to use one of these log mining based replication products. This means that you must turn on Force logging at the database level so that replication tools can capture (just replay in the case of Data guard) the redo information correctly and consistently.
But, what if your application performs high amount of direct mode operation, such as insert /*+ append */ operations? Now, you need to estimate the redo size to identify the effect of FORCE LOGGING mode That estimation gets little tricky.
But wait, there’s more!
Posted in Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC | Tagged: golden gate redo size, oracle performance, redo nologging size, redo size script, streams redo size | 8 Comments »
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on January 20, 2012
This video was created circa July 2011. Click the Read More link to review the video. Version Oracle Database 220.127.116.11
Synopsis: Essentially, we probe the importance of LMS processes using DTrace. Explain why LMS should run in elevated priority. How to review deep statistics about LMS processes and much more.
Posted in Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, Presentations, RAC, video | Tagged: LMS tuning, oracle performance, RAC performance, RAC training, video RAC training | 7 Comments »
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on January 19, 2012
In this blog entry, we will explore the wonderful world of SCNs and how Oracle database uses SCN internally. We will also explore few new bugs and clarify few misconceptions about SCN itself.
What is SCN?
SCN (System Change Number) is a primary mechanism to maintain data consistency in Oracle database. SCN is used primarily in the following areas, of course, this is not a complete list:
- Every redo record has an SCN version of the redo record in the redo header (and redo records can have non-unique SCN). Given redo records from two threads (as in the case of RAC), Recovery will order them in SCN order, essentially maintaining a strict sequential order. As explained in my paper, every redo record has multiple change vectors too.
- Every data block also has block SCN (aka block version). In addition to that, a change vector in a redo record also has expected block SCN. This means that a change vector can be applied to one and only version of the block. Code checks if the target SCN in a change vector is matching with the block SCN before applying the redo record. If there is a mismatch, corruption errors are thrown.
- Read consistency also uses SCN. Every query has query environment which includes an SCN at the start of the query. A session can see the transactional changes only if that transaction commit SCN is lower then the query environment SCN.
- Commit. Every commit will generate SCN, aka commit SCN, that marks a transaction boundary. Group commits are possible too.
SCN is a huge number with two components to it: Base and wrap. Wrap is a 16 bit number and base is a 32 bit number. It is of the format wrap.base. When the base exceeds 4 billion, then the wrap is incremented by 1. Essentially, wrap counts the number of times base wrapped around 4 billion. Few simple SQL script will enumerate this better:
But wait, there’s more!
Posted in 11g, corruption, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC, recovery | Tagged: get_system_change_number, hot backup scn growth, kcmgas calls, kcvblg, ORA-600 , oracle performance, SCN bug, tracefile_name | 32 Comments »
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on January 13, 2012
You might encounter RAC wait event ‘gc cr disk read’ in 11.2 while tuning your applications in RAC environment. Let’s probe this wait event to understand why a session would wait for this wait event.
Understanding the wait event
Let’s say that a foreground process running in node 1, is trying to access a block using a SELECT statement and that block is not in the local cache. To maintain the read consistency, foreground process will require the block consistent with the query SCN. Then the sequence of operation is(simplified):
- Foreground session calculates the master node of the block; Requests a LMS process running in the master node to access the block.
- Let’s assume that block is resident in the master node’s buffer cache. If the block is in a consistent state (meaning block version SCN is lower (or equal?) to query SCN), then LMS process can send the block to the foreground process immediately. Life is not that simple, so, let’s assume that requested block has an uncommitted transaction.
- Since the block has uncommitted changes, LMS process can not send the block immediately. LMS process must create a CR (Consistent Read) version of the block: clones the buffer, applies undo records to the cloned buffer rolling back the block to the SCN consistent with the requested query SCN.
- Then the CR block is sent to the foreground process.
LMS is a light weight process
Global cache operations must complete quickly, in the order of milli-seconds, to maintain the overall performance of RAC database. LMS is a critical process and does not do heavy lifting tasks such as disk I/O etc. If LMS process has to initiate I/O, instead of initiating I/O, LMS will downgrade the block mode and send the block to the requesting foreground process (this is known as Light Works rule). Foreground process will apply undo records to the block to construct CR version of the block.
Posted in 11g, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, Presentations, RAC | Tagged: gc cr disk read, RAC performance | 6 Comments »
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on January 10, 2012
On February 14-16, I’ll be at the Colorado Convention Center in Denver, Colorado for RMOUG’s Training Days Conference. This is the largest regional Oracle User Conference in North America and attracts presenters from all around the country and the globe. I’ll be presenting:
Presentation Name: Troubleshooting RAC Background Process
Abstract: RAC background process performance is critical to keep the application performance. This session will demo techniques to review the performance of RAC background processes such as LMS, LMD, LMON, etc. using various statistics and UNIX tools. The presentation will also discuss why certain background processes must run in higher priority to maintain the application performance in RAC.
Presentation Name: A Kind and Gentle Introduction to RAC
Abstract: This session will introduce basic concepts such as cache fusion, conversion to RAC, protocols for interconnect, general architectural overview, GES layer locks, clusterware, etc. The session will also discuss the srvctl command and demo a few of these commands to improve the understanding.
Presentation Name: Parallel Execution in RAC
Abstract: This presentation will start to discuss and demo parallel server allocation, intra, and inter node parallelism aspects. The session will discuss the new parallelism features such as parallel statement queuing, parallel auto dop, and discuss the interaction of those features with RAC. The session will probe a few critical parameters to improve PQ performance in RAC.
Click here for more information or to register for RMOUG’s Training Days.
Posted in Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, Presentations, RAC | Tagged: oracle performance, performance, RAC performance | Leave a Comment »