Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on May 22, 2012
Let’s first discuss how RAC traffic works before continuing. Environment for the discussion is: 2 node cluster with 8K database block size, UDP protocol is used for cache fusion. (BTW, UDP and RDS protocols are supported in UNIX platform; whereas Windows uses TCP protocol).
UDP protocol, fragmentation, and assembly
UDP Protocol is an higher level protocol stack, and it is implemented over IP Protocol ( UDP/IP). Cache Fusion uses UDP protocol to send packets over the wire (Exadata uses RDS protocol though).
MTU defines the Maximum Transfer Unit of an IP packet. Let us consider an example of MTU set to 1500 in a network interface. One 8K block transfer can not be performed with just one IP packet as the IP packet size (1500 bytes) is less than 8K. So, one transfer of UDP packet of 8K size is fragmented to 6 IP packets and sent over the wire. In the receiving side, those 6 packets are reassembled to create one UDP buffer of size 8K. After the assembly, that UDP buffer is delivered to an UDP port of a UNIX process. Usually, a foreground process will listen on that port to receive the UDP buffer.
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Posted in 11g, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, Presentations, RAC, video | Tagged: cache fusion mtu, fragmentation and reassembly, gc lost packets, ipfrag_high_thres, ipfrag_low_thres, ipfrag_time, Jumbo frames, MTU, MTU=9000, oracle performance, RAC internals, RAC performance, RAC presentations, RAC training, RAC video, RAC videos, RDS, UDP vs tcp, wireshark | 9 Comments »
Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on April 29, 2012
We know that database blocks are transferred between the nodes through the interconnect, aka cache fusion traffic. Common misconception is that packet transfer size is always database block size for block transfer (Of course, messages are smaller in size). That’s not entirely true. There is an optimization in the cache fusion code to reduce the packet size (and so reduces the bits transferred over the private network). Don’t confuse this note with Jumbo frames and MTU size, this note is independent of MTU setting.
In a nutshell, if free space in a block exceeds a threshold (_gc_fusion_compression) then instead of sending the whole block, LMS sends a smaller packet, reducing private network traffic bits. Let me give an example to illustrate my point. Let’s say that the database block size is 8192 and a block to be transferred is a recently NEWed block, say, with 4000 bytes of free space. Transfer of this block over the interconnect from one node to another node in the cluster will result in a packet size of ~4200 bytes. Transfer of bytes representing free space can be avoided completely, just a symbolic notation of free space begin offset and free space end offset is good enough to reconstruct the block in the receiving side without any loss of data.This optimization makes sense as there is no need to clog the network unnecessarily.
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Posted in 11g, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC | Tagged: RAC internals, RAC performance, RAC performance myths, _gc_fusion_compression | 9 Comments »