Oracle database internals by Riyaj

Discussions about Oracle performance tuning, RAC, Oracle internal & E-business suite.

Hotsos 2014

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on February 25, 2014

I will be presenting in HOTSOS symposium 2014 discussing correct methods to diagnose RAC performance issues. Very surprisingly, even very senior performance engineers make mistakes in their analysis while reviewing RAC issues. Come to my presentation and learn the golden rules of RAC performance diagnostics.

Posted in 12c, Performance tuning, Presentations, RAC | Leave a Comment »

Scripts to create AWR reports quickly.

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on November 12, 2013

It is easier to create one or two AWR reports quickly using OEM. But, what if you have to create AWR reports for many snapshots? For example, your Oracle support analyst wants you to supply 10 1-hour AWR reports from 10AM to 8PM in a 8 node cluster? That’s about 80 AWR reports to create! Okay, okay, I may(!) be overselling it, but you get the point. It is useful to have a script to create AWR report for all instances for a given range of snapshot IDs. Following scripts are handy:

1. To create one AWR report per instance, for the last snap duration : awrrpt_all_gen.sql
2. Same as (1) but in html format : awrrpt_all_genhtml.sql
3. To create one AWR report per instance, for a range of snap IDs : awrrpt_all_range_gen.sql
4. To create one AWR report, per instance, per snap ID : awrrpt_all_multi_gen.sql

Zip file: awrrpt_scripts

These scripts do not modify anything in the database, just retrieves the data using dbms_workload_repository package. Test the scripts to understand further. Of course, you need access to dbms_workload_repository and access to gv$instance.

Posted in Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC | Tagged: , , , | 4 Comments »

Oaktable world presentation

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on September 18, 2013

I will be hacking RAC internals with few LINUX tools in Oaktable world presentation series, in SFO. Details are available at Oaktable World 2013

Hope to see you there!

Posted in Oracle database internals, RAC | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

RAC Internals: cached sequences and 12c

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on September 9, 2013

Introduction

I blogged about DFS lock handle contention in an earlier blog entry. SV resources in Global Resource Directory (GRD) is used to maintain the cached sequence values. I will further probe the internal mechanics involved in the cached sequences. I will also discuss minor changes in the resource names to support pluggable databases (version 12c).

SV resources

Let’s create an ordered sequence in rs schema and then query values from the sequence few times.

create sequence rs.test_seq order cache 100;
select rs.test_seq.nextval from dual; -- repeated a few times.
...
/
21

Sequence values are permanently stored in the seq$ dictionary table. Cached sequence values are maintained in SV resources in GRD and SV resource names follows the naming convention to include object_id of the sequence. I will generate a string using a small helper script and we will use that resource name to search in the GRD.

SELECT DISTINCT '[0x'
    ||trim(TO_CHAR(object_id, 'xxxxxxxx'))
    ||'][0x'
    || trim(TO_CHAR(0,'xxxx'))
    || '],[SV]' res
FROM dba_objects WHERE object_name=upper('&objname')
     AND owner=upper('&owner') AND object_type LIKE 'SEQUENCE%'
/
Enter value for objname: TEST_SEQ
Enter value for owner: RS
RES
---------------------------
[0x165d7][0x0],[SV]

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in 12c, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC, weird stuff | Tagged: , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Book: Expert Oracle RAC 12c

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on September 8, 2013

A quick note, Expert Oracle RAC book co-written by me is available now: Expert Oracle RAC 12c. I have written about 6 chapters covering the RAC internals that you may want to learn :) I even managed to discuss the network internals in deep, after all, network is one of the most important component of a RAC cluster.

Posted in 12c, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC | Tagged: , , , | Leave a Comment »

Review of Oracle Database 12c

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on June 26, 2013

I reviewed Oracle Database 12c for the InfoWorld magazine.

You can read the article here:  Oracle Database 12c Review

Posted in 12c | Tagged: , , , , | 2 Comments »

Dude, where is my redo?

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on June 12, 2013

This blog entry is to discuss a method to identify the objects inducing higher amount of redo. First,we will establish that redo size increased sharply and then identify the objects generating more redo. Unfortunately, redo size is not tracked at a segment level. However, you can make an educated guess using ‘db block changes’ statistics. But, you must use logminer utility to identify the objects generating more redo scientifically.

Detecting redo size increase

AWR tables (require Diagnostics license) can be accessed to identify the redo size increase. Following query spools the daily rate of redo size. You can easily open the output file redosize.lst in an Excel spreadsheet and graph the data to visualize the redo size change. Use pipe symbol as the delimiter while opening the file in excel spreadsheet.

spool redosize.lst
REM  You need Diagnostic Pack licence to execute this query!
REM  Author: Riyaj Shamsudeen
col begin_interval_time format a30
set lines 160 pages 1000
col end_interval_time format a30
set colsep '|'
alter session set nls_date_format='DD-MON-YYYY';
with redo_sz as (
SELECT  sysst.snap_id, sysst.instance_number, begin_interval_time ,end_interval_time ,  startup_time,
VALUE - lag (VALUE) OVER ( PARTITION BY  startup_time, sysst.instance_number
                ORDER BY begin_interval_time, startup_time, sysst.instance_number) stat_value,
EXTRACT (DAY    FROM (end_interval_time-begin_interval_time))*24*60*60+
            EXTRACT (HOUR   FROM (end_interval_time-begin_interval_time))*60*60+
            EXTRACT (MINUTE FROM (end_interval_time-begin_interval_time))*60+
            EXTRACT (SECOND FROM (end_interval_time-begin_interval_time)) DELTA
  FROM sys.wrh$_sysstat sysst , DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOT snaps
WHERE (sysst.dbid, sysst.stat_id) IN ( SELECT dbid, stat_id FROM sys.wrh$_stat_name WHERE  stat_name='redo size' )
AND snaps.snap_id = sysst.snap_id
AND snaps.dbid =sysst.dbid
AND sysst.instance_number=snaps.instance_number
and begin_interval_time > sysdate-90
)
select instance_number, 
  to_date(to_char(begin_interval_time,'DD-MON-YYYY'),'DD-MON-YYYY') dt 
, sum(stat_value) redo1
from redo_sz
group by  instance_number,
  to_date(to_char(begin_interval_time,'DD-MON-YYYY'),'DD-MON-YYYY') 
order by instance_number, 2
/
spool off

Visualizing the data will help you to quickly identify any pattern anomalies in redo generation. Here is an example graph created from the excel spreadsheet and see that redo size increased recently.

screenshot_redo
Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in 11g, Oracle database internals, Performance tuning, RAC | Tagged: , , , , | 21 Comments »

Clusterware Startup

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on June 5, 2013

The restart of a UNIX server call initialization scripts to start processes and daemons. Every platform has a unique directory structure and follows a method to implement server startup sequence. In Linux platform (prior to Linux 6), initialization scripts are started by calling scripts in the /etc/rcX.d directories, where X denotes the run level of the UNIX server. Typically, Clusterware is started at run level 3. For example, ohasd daemon started by /etc/rc3.d/S96ohasd file by supplying start as an argument. File S96ohasd is linked to /etc/init.d/ohasd.

S96ohasd -> /etc/init.d/ohasd

/etc/rc3.d/S96ohasd start  # init daemon starting ohasd.

Similarly, a server shutdown will call scripts in rcX.d directories, for example, ohasd is shut down by calling K15ohasd script:

K15ohasd -> /etc/init.d/ohasd
/etc/rc3.d/K15ohasd stop  #UNIX daemons stopping ohasd

In Summary, server startup will call files matching the pattern of S* in the /etc/rcX.d directories. Calling sequence of the scripts is in the lexical order of script name. For example, S10cscape will be called prior to S96ohasd, as the script S10cscape occurs earlier in the lexical sequence.

Google if you want to learn further about RC startup sequence. Of course, Linux 6 introduces Upstart feature and the mechanism is a little different: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upstart

That’s not the whole story!

Have you ever thought why the ‘crsctl start crs’ returns immediately? You can guess that Clusterware is started in the background as the command returns to UNIX prompt almost immediately. Executing the crsctl command just modifies the ohasdrun file content to ‘restart’. It doesn’t actually perform the task of starting the clusterware. Daemon init.ohasd reads the ohasdrun file every few seconds and starts the Clusterware if the file content is changed to ‘restart’.

# cat /etc/oracle/scls_scr/oel6rac1/root/ohasdrun
restart

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in 11g, Oracle database internals, RAC | Tagged: , , , , , | 16 Comments »

DOUG presentation on dbms_xplan

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on October 22, 2012

Please join us at the DOUG (DALLAS ORACLE USERS GROUP) Oracle Database Forum meeting on Thursday, October 25, 2012 from 5 pm – 7 pm.
Presented by Riyaj Shamsudeen, OraInternals, & Sahil Thapar:

“Out with the old way, Enter dbms_xplan: A Swiss army knife for performance engineers”

Rough outline:
(i) Ability to query access path from memory, AWR repository
(ii) Ability to use cardinality feedback method to understand access plan issues. Few tips from a real world experience will be provided too.
(iii) Ability to understand issues with database links etc.
(iv) Options such as ADVANCED, ALLSTATS etc
(v) Why should you choose dbmx_xplan over tkprof+sql_trace combination?
(vi) Disadvantages of dbms_xplan and a quick introduction to dbms_monitor.

Refreshments sponsored by me :)

Update: Uploading the presentation pdf files. Enjoy :)

dbms_xplan

Posted in Performance tuning, Presentations | Tagged: , , , , | 5 Comments »

Do you need asmlib?

Posted by Riyaj Shamsudeen on August 29, 2012

There are many questions from few of my clients about asmlib support in RHEL6, as they are gearing up to upgrade the database servers to RHEL6. There is a controversy about asmlib support in RHEL6.  As usual, I will only discuss technical details in this blog entry.

ASMLIB is applicable only to Linux platform and does not apply to any other platform.

Now, you might ask why bother and why not just use OEL and UK? Well, not every Linux server is used as a database server. In a typical company, there are hundreds of Linux servers and just few percent of those servers are used as Database servers. Linux system administrators prefer to keep one flavor of Linux distribution for management ease and so, asking clients to change the distribution from RHEL to OEL or OEL to RHEL is always not a viable option.

Do you need to use ASMLIB in Linux?

Short answer is No. Long answer is possibly No. ASMLIB is an optional support library and eases the administration of ASM devices. Especially, it is helpful while adding new devices to the nodes in a cluster. ASMLIB essentially stamps the devices and so, it is easily visible in other nodes of a cluster in the next asm scandisk. asmlib also provides device persistence, which is the important benefit of ASM (see the discussion below for more details about device persistence).

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in 11g, RAC | Tagged: , , , , , , , , | 8 Comments »

 
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 200 other followers